Brief survey of England's National Health System
Written by Angie Mansfield
England's National Health System has caused quite a bit of controversy over the years. Just as with the healthcare system in the United States, the NHS is either loved or loathed by many people.
But is it still a healthy program?
Created in 1948, the NHS has undergone a series of government reforms, some of which have been highly controversial. But perhaps more critical is the rising demand for healthcare and costs of providing it.
With budgets growing ever tighter, the NHS has several hurdles to overcome in the next several years.
Obesity is on the rise in England, bringing with it higher rates of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. These higher disease rates, in turn, are pushing healthcare costs higher and higher. Smoking and alcohol abuse are the other two major lifestyle issues facing the country and raising the healthcare bill.
England's government is working on measures to add clearer food labeling while reducing the amounts of salt, sugar, and Trans fats. They're also implementing programs to encourage citizens to live healthier lives, and working on programs for schools to promote healthy living.
One community program, called re:fresh, is showing some serious results. The program allows for public use of leisure activities (such as gyms, squash courts, and swimming pools) for free. Participation in these activities rose by 50% in the four years from the program's start in 2008 to 2012.
That's a very promising number, since the success or failure of these programs could mean billions of dollars saved -- or lost -- on healthcare costs.
Another factor affecting England's health system is a familiar one to US healthcare providers: An aging population.
Today, people live longer than ever, thanks to advances in medicine. But this longer life comes with a few consequences. As the elderly population rises, more patients will present with multiple conditions. Some of these conditions (such as dementia) require major resources for proper care.
Solutions to this issue are far from easy. One suggestion is to move more patients out of hospitals and have hospital consultants running clinics to provide care in communities. However, this solution brings with it a serious dent in revenue for hospitals, some of which are already struggling.
Hospitals in the country are starting to rack up serious debts; in 2012, the South London Healthcare trust had a £65 million shortfall (about $103.5 million).
All of these challenges come on the back of the tightest budget the NHS has seen in years.
Currently, healthcare funding rises in England by 0.1% per year; this feels more like a cut to a health system that's used to receiving a 4% increase every year.
With these challenges in mind, the government enacted a major overhaul of the NHS -- one of the most controversial reforms England's government has attempted in recent years. Some argue that the reforms will lead to more people seeking care from the private sector and an eventual breakup of the NHS, while others insist the overhaul will help the service meet its current challenges.
One thing is certain: The NHS has a long road to travel before it makes its way back to a healthy model.
About the Author
Freelance blogger Angie Mansfield covers a variety of subjects for consumers and small business owners. Her work addresses topics such as marketing, business management, and finding car insurance.
How healthcare can safeguard itself against cyberthreats
One of the most fundamental lessons from the COVID crisis is that health should always be a priority. In a similar fashion to the human body that frequently fights off viruses and foreign invaders that intend to cause it harm, the sector itself is now a prime target for another type of external threat: cyberattacks.
The figures speak for themselves: between December and January this year, hospitals in the UK were at 89% capacity, with 7,000 fewer available beds than there usually are. As the pandemic increased pressure on hospitals, clinics, and research facilities to create a treatment for patients globally, it has left the sector exposed to hackers who, like a virus, have been targeting it relentlessly and evolving their tactics.
From patient records being held ransom, to fake emails claiming to originate from the UN WHO, the NHS, or vaccine centres, through to attacks on the cold supply chain to find out the secret formula of the COVID vaccine, the healthcare industry is facing constant cyberattacks and struggling to cope. This threat is unlikely to go away anytime soon – and as such, the industry needs to take a proactive, preventative stance to stay safe in a dynamic digital world.
The responsive nature of healthcare – particularly of hospitals – means that efficiency is crucial to the industry’s standard operations. To support this, the sector has been embracing technological advancements that can improve the quality of work, enabling staff to meet pressing deadlines, and enhancing patient care. For example, the industry has been digitising records and improving its ways of working through digital means over the past few years.
This shift is critical to offer high quality patient care; yet, it also means the sector has become more dependent on IT, which can come with a risk if cybersecurity processes employed are deemed as inadequate.
Without the correct security measures in place, the desired efficiency gains realised, can be easily lost in a heartbeat. Simply put, an elementary glitch in the system can have a tremendous ripple effect on many areas, from accessing patient records and conducting scans, to maintaining physical security and protecting the intellectual property of experimental treatment development.
To prevent this, healthcare organisations need to ensure they’re considering cybersecurity as part of their overall digital transformation strategy – and setting the right foundations to create a culture where safety goes hand in hand with patient care.
Before implementing cybersecurity process, healthcare organisations need to assess the potential risks they face. Depending on how much confidential data the trust has, where it is stored, who has access to it and via which means, the cybersecurity strategy and associated solutions will change.
It’s fair to say that a medical device start-up where all employees have a corporate-sanctioned laptop and access data via a VPN will have radically different needs to a large hospital with hundreds of frontline workers connecting to the hospital’s Wi-Fi using their personal device.
These requirements will pale by comparison to a global pharmaceutical giant with offices in multiple locations, a large R&D department researching new treatments for complex diseases and a fully integrated supply chain. Considering the existing setup and what the organisations is looking to achieve with its digital transformation strategy will therefore have an immediate impact on the cybersecurity strategy.
Despite this, there are fundamentals that any organisation should implement:
Review and test your back-up policy to ensure it is thorough and sufficient – By checking that the organisation’s back-up is running smoothly, IT teams can limit any risks of disruption in the midst of an incident and of losing data permanently.
In our recent State of Email Security report, we found that six out of ten organisations have been victims of ransomware in 2020. As a result, afflicted organisations have lost an average of six days to downtime. One third of organisations even admitted that they failed to get their data back, despite paying the ransom. In the healthcare industry, this could mean losing valuable patient records or data related to new treatments – two areas the sector cannot afford to be cavalier about.
Conduct due diligence across the organisation’s supply chain – Healthcare organisations should review their ways of working with partners, providers and regulatory institutions they work with in order to prevent any weak link in their cybersecurity chain. Without this due diligence, organisations leave themselves exposed to the risks of third party-led incidents.
Roll out mandatory cybersecurity awareness training - Healthcare organisations shouldn’t neglect the training and awareness of their entire staff – including frontline workers who may not access the corporate network on a regular basis. According to our State of Email Security report, only one fifth of organisations carry out ongoing cyber awareness training.
This suggests it is not widely considered as a fundamental part of most organisations cyber-resilience strategy, despite the fact many employees rely on their organisation’s corporate network to work. By providing systematic training, healthcare organisations can help workers at all levels better understand the current cyberthreats they face, how they could impact their organisation, the role they play in defending the networks, and develop consistent, good cybersecurity hygiene habits to limit the risks of incidents.
Consider a degree of separation – Information and Operational Technology (IT and OT) networks should be separated.
Although mutually supported and reliance on each other, employees shouldn’t be accessing one via the other. This should be complemented by a considered tried and tested contingency and resiliency plan that allows crucial services to function unabated should there be a compromise. Similarly, admin terminals should not have internet access to afford a degree of hardening and protection for these critical accounts.
As the sector becomes a common target for fraudulent and malicious activity, putting cybersecurity at the core of the organisation’s operations is critical. It will help limit the risks of disruption due to cyberattacks, reduce time spent by the cybersecurity team to resolve easily avoidable errors, and ensure that institutions can deliver patient care, safe in the knowledge that their networks are safe.
Fighting future threats
With technology continuing to change the face of healthcare, the surface area and vectors available for attacks by malicious actors is constantly increasing. With the introduction of apps, networked monitoring devices, and a need for communication, the attack vector is ever expanding, a trend that needs to be monitored and secured against.
To prevent any damage to patients, staff, or the organisation they are responsible for, healthcare leaders must put security front and centre of their digital transformation strategy. Only then can the sector harness the full benefits of technology. Doing this should include implementing cybersecurity awareness training to challenge misconceptions around security, encourage conversation, and to ensure employee knowledge of the security basics and threats faced.
This ultimately allows healthcare organisations to do what they do best: provide the highest standard of patient care, safe in the knowledge that their operations, patients, and data are safe.