Haitian Cholera strand spreads to Mexican hospitals
Written by Alyssa Clark
A Haitian-based strand of cholera that was discovered three years ago has now jumped further into the Western Hemisphere and begun to infect the people of Mexico, Mexican healthcare establishments and surrounding healthcare businesses as well. Mexico now totals the fourth country to experience the cholera epidemic, as the disease thrives off of areas with poor sanitation and water maintenance and is extremely hard to purge once it has begun to infect people.
This public health problem came onto the radar of Mexican health officials on September 9th, after it was reported that numerous patients were being admitted to hospitals with serious cases of diarrhea. After the reported initial cases, 171 cases of cholera have been reported in Mexico City and surrounding states to the north and east. Fortunately as of today, only one victim has died from the cholera outbreak.
The deputy director of Pan American Health Organization Dr. Jon Andrus, directly predicted that the cholera outbreak would jump beyond the Caribbean, “"It was always a major concern that it would be exported to other countries, as has recently happened in Mexico," he tells Shots.
After being first suspected of being introduced to Haiti by suspected peacekeeping troops from Nepal, cholera has infected and sickened 715,000 people in both Haiti, Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Around 9,000 people in total have died across the three countries since it first sprang up in Haiti. The deputy director warns nation’s around the world that he predicts this epidemic has more to come.
"We are advocating throughout the region for countries to be on their guard," he says.
Cuba is now speculated to have been infected by healthcare professionals whom have traveled between Haiti and Cuba on respective operations; Cuba now has a total of 700 reported cholera cases and three deaths. The nation has yet to determine the full parameters of the outbreak.
Andrus stated that he surmises that those who were visiting Cuba probably because infected through ingesting contaminated food products, and now the disease has been exported, he thinks, to Chile, Venezuela, Italy, Germany and Holland. Luckily these suspected countries have yet to report any suspected outbreaks, but as we have all learned from the Mexican outbreak, it doesn’t take much for cholera to quickly spread into various parts of a country.
"Cholera's one of those infections that catches attention in a way that few infections do — plague, Ebola, pandemic influenza, cholera," says Dr. Edward Ryan of the Massachusetts General Hospital. "It's one of those ones that everybody sort of sits up straight for. It is one of the ones that tests the system."
The effect from the outbreak of cholera is set to take a heavy toll on the Mexican healthcare system, with public health officials and hospitals scrambling to contain the recent outbreak.
About the Author
Alyssa Clark is the Editor of Healthcare Global
How healthcare can safeguard itself against cyberthreats
One of the most fundamental lessons from the COVID crisis is that health should always be a priority. In a similar fashion to the human body that frequently fights off viruses and foreign invaders that intend to cause it harm, the sector itself is now a prime target for another type of external threat: cyberattacks.
The figures speak for themselves: between December and January this year, hospitals in the UK were at 89% capacity, with 7,000 fewer available beds than there usually are. As the pandemic increased pressure on hospitals, clinics, and research facilities to create a treatment for patients globally, it has left the sector exposed to hackers who, like a virus, have been targeting it relentlessly and evolving their tactics.
From patient records being held ransom, to fake emails claiming to originate from the UN WHO, the NHS, or vaccine centres, through to attacks on the cold supply chain to find out the secret formula of the COVID vaccine, the healthcare industry is facing constant cyberattacks and struggling to cope. This threat is unlikely to go away anytime soon – and as such, the industry needs to take a proactive, preventative stance to stay safe in a dynamic digital world.
The responsive nature of healthcare – particularly of hospitals – means that efficiency is crucial to the industry’s standard operations. To support this, the sector has been embracing technological advancements that can improve the quality of work, enabling staff to meet pressing deadlines, and enhancing patient care. For example, the industry has been digitising records and improving its ways of working through digital means over the past few years.
This shift is critical to offer high quality patient care; yet, it also means the sector has become more dependent on IT, which can come with a risk if cybersecurity processes employed are deemed as inadequate.
Without the correct security measures in place, the desired efficiency gains realised, can be easily lost in a heartbeat. Simply put, an elementary glitch in the system can have a tremendous ripple effect on many areas, from accessing patient records and conducting scans, to maintaining physical security and protecting the intellectual property of experimental treatment development.
To prevent this, healthcare organisations need to ensure they’re considering cybersecurity as part of their overall digital transformation strategy – and setting the right foundations to create a culture where safety goes hand in hand with patient care.
Before implementing cybersecurity process, healthcare organisations need to assess the potential risks they face. Depending on how much confidential data the trust has, where it is stored, who has access to it and via which means, the cybersecurity strategy and associated solutions will change.
It’s fair to say that a medical device start-up where all employees have a corporate-sanctioned laptop and access data via a VPN will have radically different needs to a large hospital with hundreds of frontline workers connecting to the hospital’s Wi-Fi using their personal device.
These requirements will pale by comparison to a global pharmaceutical giant with offices in multiple locations, a large R&D department researching new treatments for complex diseases and a fully integrated supply chain. Considering the existing setup and what the organisations is looking to achieve with its digital transformation strategy will therefore have an immediate impact on the cybersecurity strategy.
Despite this, there are fundamentals that any organisation should implement:
Review and test your back-up policy to ensure it is thorough and sufficient – By checking that the organisation’s back-up is running smoothly, IT teams can limit any risks of disruption in the midst of an incident and of losing data permanently.
In our recent State of Email Security report, we found that six out of ten organisations have been victims of ransomware in 2020. As a result, afflicted organisations have lost an average of six days to downtime. One third of organisations even admitted that they failed to get their data back, despite paying the ransom. In the healthcare industry, this could mean losing valuable patient records or data related to new treatments – two areas the sector cannot afford to be cavalier about.
Conduct due diligence across the organisation’s supply chain – Healthcare organisations should review their ways of working with partners, providers and regulatory institutions they work with in order to prevent any weak link in their cybersecurity chain. Without this due diligence, organisations leave themselves exposed to the risks of third party-led incidents.
Roll out mandatory cybersecurity awareness training - Healthcare organisations shouldn’t neglect the training and awareness of their entire staff – including frontline workers who may not access the corporate network on a regular basis. According to our State of Email Security report, only one fifth of organisations carry out ongoing cyber awareness training.
This suggests it is not widely considered as a fundamental part of most organisations cyber-resilience strategy, despite the fact many employees rely on their organisation’s corporate network to work. By providing systematic training, healthcare organisations can help workers at all levels better understand the current cyberthreats they face, how they could impact their organisation, the role they play in defending the networks, and develop consistent, good cybersecurity hygiene habits to limit the risks of incidents.
Consider a degree of separation – Information and Operational Technology (IT and OT) networks should be separated.
Although mutually supported and reliance on each other, employees shouldn’t be accessing one via the other. This should be complemented by a considered tried and tested contingency and resiliency plan that allows crucial services to function unabated should there be a compromise. Similarly, admin terminals should not have internet access to afford a degree of hardening and protection for these critical accounts.
As the sector becomes a common target for fraudulent and malicious activity, putting cybersecurity at the core of the organisation’s operations is critical. It will help limit the risks of disruption due to cyberattacks, reduce time spent by the cybersecurity team to resolve easily avoidable errors, and ensure that institutions can deliver patient care, safe in the knowledge that their networks are safe.
Fighting future threats
With technology continuing to change the face of healthcare, the surface area and vectors available for attacks by malicious actors is constantly increasing. With the introduction of apps, networked monitoring devices, and a need for communication, the attack vector is ever expanding, a trend that needs to be monitored and secured against.
To prevent any damage to patients, staff, or the organisation they are responsible for, healthcare leaders must put security front and centre of their digital transformation strategy. Only then can the sector harness the full benefits of technology. Doing this should include implementing cybersecurity awareness training to challenge misconceptions around security, encourage conversation, and to ensure employee knowledge of the security basics and threats faced.
This ultimately allows healthcare organisations to do what they do best: provide the highest standard of patient care, safe in the knowledge that their operations, patients, and data are safe.