May 17, 2020

The hidden benefits to brushing your teeth

Gum disease
teeth
brushing
cleaning
Admin
3 min
Brushing your teeth has a number of health benefits
For most people, brushing their teeth is a fairly mundane, everyday task. Important to keep teeth sparkly white, gums healthy and breath minty-fresh, i...

For most people, brushing their teeth is a fairly mundane, everyday task. Important to keep teeth sparkly white, gums healthy and breath minty-fresh, it is commonly thought these are the sole benefits to brushing twice a day. While the main motivation for teeth cleaning is to prevent gum disease, it must be admitted that for most people across the world the reason is entirely aesthetic.

However, new findings are showing that brushing your teeth comes with a whole host of extra benefits than those noted above. Various studies and research projects are starting to suggest that cleaning your teeth can help to ward off diabetes, prevent heart disease and cure erectile dysfunctions. These proposals all stem from gum disease, as experts believe it is this that is linked to the other conditions. They say that once someone has developed gum disease, bacteria can enter the bloodstream and spread through the body, causing various inflammation problems.  

Two of the problems that gum disease can lead to is erectile dysfunction and delayed conception. An Indian study involving 70 men earlier this year found that gum disease can inhibit the production of the nitric oxide chemical, which increases blood flow to the penis. Meanwhile, Australian researchers have discovered that it could take a woman two months longer to fall pregnant if she has gum disease than those ladies whose gums are healthy. There has also been evidence to suggest that gum disease can increase the risk of premature births and miscarriages, all of which is due to an inflammation of the womb lining. 

For those living with gum disease, it can also reportedly enhance the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. It is thought inflammation in the mouth can create chemicals which make insulin less effective, as well as increasing the risk of long-term complications.

The risk of heart disease also increases with gum disease; in 2010 a Scottish study found the mouth infliction doubled people’s chances of developing the coronary illness. This risk was increased even if people brushed their teeth, but did so less than twice a day. A Cardiology professor has claimed that should a patient need surgery for heart disease, any incidences of gum disease are treated first to minimise the risks of infection of the heart valves.

Other side effects of gum disease include dementia and arthritis. University of Colombia researchers suggested patients with gum disease experience more problems of memory loss and additionally, German researchers found people suffering from joint inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis are eight times more at risk of gum disease than those with healthy joints.  

While the main reason for brushing teeth twice a day remains as keeping teeth white, mouths healthy and ultimately to prevent gum disease, dentists can use these extra health benefits as encouragement for their patients. 

Whoopi Goldberg on The View, talking about the health risks of gum disease:

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Apr 30, 2021

The challenges to vaccine distribution affecting everyone

covid-19vaccine
vaccinesupply
Supplychain
Blockchain
Jonathan Colehower
5 min
The challenges to vaccine distribution affecting everyone
Jonathan Colehower, CEO at CargoChain, describes the COVID-19 vaccine distribution challenges impacting every country, organisation and individual...

While it is comforting to know that vaccines against COVID-19 are showing remarkable efficacy, the world still faces intractable challenges with vaccine distribution. Specifically, the sheer number of vaccines required and the complexity of global supply chains are sure to present problems we have neither experienced nor even imagined. 

Current projections estimate that we could need 12-15 billion doses of vaccine, but the largest vaccine manufacturers produce less than half this volume in a year. To understand the scale of the problem, imagine stacking one billion pennies – you would have a stack that is 950 miles high. Now, think of that times ten. This is a massive problem that one nation can’t solve alone.  

Production capacity 

Even if we have a vaccine – can we make enough? Based on current projections, Pfizer expects to produce up to 1.3 billion doses this year. Moderna is working to expand its capacity to one billion units this year. Serum Institute of India, the world’s largest vaccine producer, is likely to produce 60% of the 3 billion doses committed by AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson and Sanofi. This leaves us about 7 billion doses short. 

Expanding vaccine production for most regions in the world is complicated and time-consuming. Unlike many traditional manufacturing operations that can expand relatively quickly and with limited regulation, pharmaceutical production must meet current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) guidelines. So, not only does it take time to transition from R&D to commercial manufacturing, but it could also take an additional six months to achieve CGMP certification. 

The problem becomes even more complex when considering the co-products required. Glass vials and syringes are just two of the most essential co-products needed to produce a vaccine. Last year, before COVID-19, global demand for glass vials was 12 billion. Even if it is safe to dispense ten doses per vial, there is certain to be significant pressure on world supply of the materials needed to package and distribute a vaccine.

It is imperative drug manufacturers and their raw material suppliers have clear visibility of production plans and raw material availability if there is any hope of optimizing scarce resources and maximising production yield.

Distribution requirements

It is widely known by now that temperature is a critical factor for the COVID-19 vaccine. Even the regions with the most developed logistics infrastructures and resources needed to support a cold-chain network are sure to struggle with distribution.

For the United States alone, State and local health agencies have determined distribution costs will exceed $8.4 billion, including $3 billion for workforce recruitment and training; $1.2 billion for cold-chain, $1 billion vaccination sites and $0.5 billion IT upgrades.  

The complexity of the problem increases further when considering countries such as India that do not have cold-chain logistics networks that meet vaccine requirements. Despite India’s network of 28,000 cold-chain units, none are capable of transporting vaccines below -25°Celsius. While India’s Serum Institute has licensed to manufacture AstraZeneca’s vaccine, which can reportedly be stored in standard refrigerated environments, even a regular vaccine cold chain poses major challenges.

Furthermore, security will undoubtedly become a significant concern that global authorities must address with a coordinated solution. According to the Pharmaceutical Security Institute, theft and counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products rose nearly 70% over the past five years. As with any valuable and scarce product, counterfeits will emerge. Suppliers and producers are actively working on innovative approaches to limit black-market interference. Corning, for example, is equipping vials with black-light verification to curb counterfeiting.

Clearly, this is a global problem that will require an unprecedented level of collaboration and coordination.

Disconnected information systems 

While it is unreasonable to expect every country around the world will suddenly adopt a standard technology that would provide immediate, accurate and available information for everyone, it is not unreasonable to think that we can align on a standard taxonomy that can serve as a Rosetta Stone for collaboration. 

A shared view of the situation (inventory, raw materials, delivery, defects) will provide every nation with the necessary information to make life-saving decisions, such as resource pooling, stock allocations and population coverage.

By allowing one central authority, such as the World Health Organization, to organize and align global leaders to a single collaboration standard, such as GS1, and a standard sharing protocol, such as DSCSA, then every supply chain participant will have the ability to predict, plan and execute in a way that maximises global health.

Political influence and social equality 

As if we don’t have enough stress and churn in today’s geopolitical environment, we must now include the challenge of “vaccine nationalism.” While this might not appear to be a supply chain problem, per se, it is a critical challenge that will hinge on supply chain capabilities.

In response to the critical supply issues the world experienced with SARS-CoV-2, the World Health Organization, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) formed Covax: a coalition dedicated to equitable distribution of 2 billion doses of approved vaccines to its 172 member countries. Covax is currently facilitating a purchasing pool and has made commitments to buy massive quantities of approved vaccines when they become available.  

However, several political powerhouse countries, such as the United States and Russia, are not participating. Instead, they are striking bilateral deals with drug manufacturers – essentially, competing with the rest of the world to secure a national supply. Allocating scarce resources is never easy, but when availability could mean the difference between life and death, it becomes almost impossible.

Global production, distribution and social equality present dependent yet conflicting realities that will demand global supply chains provide complete transparency and an immutable chain of custody imperative to vaccine distribution. 

The technology is available today – we just need to use it. We have the ability to track every batch, pallet, box, vile and dose along the supply chain. We have the ability to know with absolute certainty that the vaccine is approved, where and when it was manufactured, how it was handled and whether it was compromised at any point in the supply chain. Modern blockchain technologies should be applied so that every nation, institution, regulator, doctor and patient can have confidence in knowing that they are making an impact in eradicating COVID-19.

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